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Cloud Services, Database Management Services, Oracle Exadata, Training

 

Backing up file systems on Oracle Exadata compute can be a daunting task if you are unaware of the prerequisites and best practices. To help you backup your file systems effectively and with least discrepancies, we are bringing you this interesting step-by-step guide on how to back up your file system using Oracle Exadata Sanpshot Based Backup of Compute Node to NFS Share    

 

It is very important to take file system backup on Oracle Exadata compute nodes before we make any major changes to the operating system or critical software. On Oracle Exadata Compute nodes / (root) and /u01 file systems contains the operating system and GI/DB software respectively. These are the most critical file systems on Oracle Exadata computes.

 

By default, the / (root) and /u01 file system are sized 30GB and 100GB respectively.

 

Scenarios in which we must take file system backup are:

 

  • – Operating System Patching or Upgrade
  •  
  • – Grid Infrastructure Patching or Upgrade
  •  
  • – Database Patching or Upgrade
  •  
  • – Operating System configuration changes
  •  
  • – Increasing/decreasing file system size

 

In this article, we will demonstrate how to backup file system on Oracle Exadata Compute nodes running Linux Operating System to external storage NFS Share.

eBook - Oracle Exadata X8M Patching Recipes | Netsoftmate

Environment Details

 

Exadata Model

X4-2 Half Rack HP 4 TB

Exadata Components

4 – Compute nodes, 7 – Storage cells & 2 – IB switches

Exadata Storage cells

DBM01CEL01 – DBM01CEL07

Exadata Compute nodes

DBM01DB01 – DBM01DB04

Exadata Software Version

19.2.3.0

Exadata DB Version

11.2.0.4.180717

 

 

Prerequisites

 

  • – Root user access on Compute nodes
  •  
  • – NFS mount with sufficient storage to storing file system backup




Current root and /u01 file system sizes

 

[root@ip01db01 ~]# df -h / /u01

Filesystem Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/mapper/VGExaDb-LVDbSys1   59G   39G   18G  70% /

/dev/mapper/VGExaDb-LVDbOra1  197G  171G   17G  92% /u01



NFS share details

 

10.10.10.1:/nfs/backup/

 

  • 1. As root user, log in to the Exadata Compute node you wish to backup

 

[root@ip01db01 ~]# id root

uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root),1(bin),2(daemon),3(sys),4(adm),6(disk),10(wheel)


 

  • 2. Create a mount point to mount NFS share

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]# mkdir -p /mnt/backup

[root@dm01db01 ~]# mount -t nfs -o rw,intr,soft,proto=tcp,nolock 10.10.10.1:/nfs/backup/ /mnt/backup

 


3. Determine the file system type extension root and u01 file system

 

[root@ip01db01 ~]# mount -l

sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,relatime)

proc on /proc type proc (rw,relatime)

devtmpfs on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,nosuid,size=131804372k,nr_inodes=32951093,mode=755)

securityfs on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)

tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,size=264225792k)

/dev/mapper/VGExaDb-LVDbSys1 on / type ext3 (rw,relatime,errors=continue,barrier=1,data=ordered) [DBSYS]

/dev/mapper/VGExaDb-LVDbOra1 on /u01 type ext3 (rw,nodev,relatime,errors=continue,barrier=1,data=ordered) [DBORA]

/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext3 (rw,nodev,relatime,errors=continue,barrier=1,data=ordered) [BOOT]

 

 

4.  Note down the file system type for root and /u01: ext3. Take a snapshot-based of the root and u01 directories, Label the snapshot and Mount the snapshot

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]# lvcreate -L5G -s -n root_snap /dev/VGExaDb/LVDbSys1

  Logical volume “root_snap” created.

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]# lvcreate -L5G -s -n u01_snap /dev/VGExaDb/LVDbOra1

  Logical volume “u01_snap” created.



[root@dm01db01 ~]# e2label /dev/VGExaDb/root_snap DBSYS_SNAP

[root@dm01db01 ~]# e2label /dev/VGExaDb/u01_snap DBORA_SNAP

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]# mkdir -p /mnt/snap/root

[root@dm01db01 ~]# mkdir -p /mnt/snap/u01

 

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]# mount /dev/VGExaDb/root_snap /mnt/snap/root -t ext3

[root@dm01db01 ~]# mount /dev/VGExaDb/u01_snap /mnt/snap/u01 -t ext3

 

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]# df -h /mnt/snap/root

[root@dm01db01 ~]# df -h /mnt/snap/u01

 

 

  • 5. Change to the directory for the backup and Create the backup file

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]#  cd /mnt/backup

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]#  tar -pjcvf /mnt/backup/mybackup.tar.bz2 * /boot –exclude /mnt/backup/mybackup.tar.bz2 > /tmp/backup_tar.stdout 2> /tmp/backup_tar.stderr

 

  • 6. Monitor the /tmp/backup_tar.stderr file for errors. Errors such as failing to tar open sockets can be ignored.

 

  • 7. Unmount the snapshots and remove the snapshots for the root and /01 directories.

 

[root@dm01db01 ~]# cd /

 

[root@dm01db01 /]# umount /mnt/snap/u01

 

[root@dm01db01 /]# umount /mnt/snap/root

 

[root@dm01db01 /]# df -h /mnt/snap/u01

[root@dm01db01 /]# df -h /mnt/snap/root

 

[root@dm01db01 /]# ls -l /mnt/snap

 

[root@dm01db01 /]# rm -rf /mnt/snap

 

 

[root@dm01db01 /]# lvremove /dev/VGExaDb/u01_snap

Do you really want to remove active logical volume u01_snap? [y/n]: y

  Logical volume “u01_snap” successfully removed


 

[root@dm01db01 /]# lvremove /dev/VGExaDb/root_snap

Do you really want to remove active logical volume root_snap? [y/n]: y

  Logical volume “root_snap” successfully removed


 

  • 8. Unmount the NFS share

 

[root@dm01db01 /] umount /mnt/backup


 

  • Repeat the above steps on the remaining compute nodes to backup root & u01 file system



We hope this article helps you smoothly backup your file system on Oracle Exadata Compute node running Oracle Linux using NFS Share. Stay tuned for more step-by-step guides on implementing and using Oracle Database Systems exclusively on Netsoftmate




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Cloud Services, Oracle Database Management Solution, Oracle Databases, Oracle Exadata


  • What is Oracle Autonomous Database?


    Oracle Autonomous Database allows you rapidly & easily create mission critical databases, It protects data from both external and internal threats, automates all infrastructure & database maintenance, recovers from any failure without downtime and scales online for highest performance & lower cost.



    Components of Oracle Autonomous Database:

    An Oracle Autonomous database comprises of 3 components:

    Oracle Exadata
    Oracle database
    Automated Data Center Operations and Machine Learning

     

    How Does Oracle Database Works:

    An Oracle Autonomous Database is self driving, self securing and self repairing.

  • Self Driving: It Automates all databases and infrastructure management, Patching, tune Queries and Monitoring

  • Self Securing: Protects database from both external and malicious internal users by automatically encrypting data both at rest and in transit

  • Self Repairing: Automatically recover from any failure. Protects from all downtime including planned maintenance


    Machine Learning:

    Automation  built up on the revolutionary machine learning platform enables the Customers with greater database autonomy and capabilities.

  • Workload Optimization: Automatically adapts to the changing workload and optimization of query execution. So Customers doesn’t have to tune queries manually.

  • Monitoring & Diagnostics: Detects anomalies and fixes issues ensuring optimal performance and availability. So Customers doesn’t have to install or waiting for monitoring and alerting notification.

  • Security: Protects database from both external attacks and malicious internal users by automatically encrypting data and apply security updates.

     

    Oracle Autonomous Database Family:

  • Oracle Autonomous Data Warehouse (ADW): It is optimized for Data Warehouse, Data Mart & Data lake. Easy provision, connect, load data and execute queries.

  • Oracle Autonomous Transaction Processing (ATP): It is optimized for Transaction processing, batch, Report, Mixed workload, IoT & Application Development. Easy provision, connect, load data and execute queries.
  •  


  •  

    Benefits of Autonomous Database:

  • Fast Provisioning: Create the database in minutes, load data & execute queries
  •  
  • Autonomous: Automatically tune queries without DBA intervention
  •  
  • Extreme Performance: Run Oracle workload up to 13x faster on Oracle Exadata


    Steps to create an Autonomous Database:

    It just takes 4 steps to create an Autonomous Database (DW, Data mart or OLTP) and in few minutes the customers can have Autonomous database ready to connect and load data and start using it. 




    Migrating to Oracle Autonomous Database:

  • Oracle Database is same in the cloud as on-premises. You can move it to the cloud without having to change application code.Quickly obtain environments for testing and development. Take on-premises data, move onto the cloud storage for fast analysis, backup or archiving. Get an enterprise production ready database in minutes for fast migration to cloud. Tuning, patching, backup, disaster recovery, high availability for them automatically.


    Oracle Autonomous database Security Capabilities:

  • Autonomous database automatically applies patches and upgrades eliminating human error, keeping the system protected. Oracle Database Vault protects the database from internal administrator access, allows administrators to perform their job, but not access the data itself. By default, Oracle Autonomous database uses TDE to protect data at rest. It also protects data in transit when the client uses SSL/TLS 1.2.


    Oracle Autonomous Database Deployment option:

  • Autonomous Database Serverless: Simple & Elastic. Oracle automates and manages everything. You just choose the compute , storage and region. Start with minimum 1 OCPU & 1 hour minimum commitment time and Instantly grow or shrink online.

  • Autonomous Database Dedicated: Provides a Private database cloud running on a dedicated Exadata cloud infrastructure in the Public cloud. Highly isolated and Customizable operation policies. Available as Cloud at Customer solution.


    Which Autonomous Database Deployment is best for me?

    Regardless of which Autonomous Database deployment you chose you will get the same great features, functionality, security and performance you have grown to expect from the Oracle Database.

    For users that are simply looking for a database for a specific application or project and don’t want to be involved in choosing any database details like versions, patching, etc., Serverless is right choice. Whereas users that want to rethink their IT strategy and care about things like patching schedules, software versions, workload isolation, and want to be involved in choosing these, then Dedicated is the right choice.


    Conclusion:

    In this article we have learned about Oracle Autonomous database cloud, its components, benefits and capabilities and different autonomous database deployment options available.



3

Cloud security, Cloud Services, Database Management Services, Oracle Databases
Overview
 
Amazon Web Services is a comprehensive, evolving cloud computing platform provided by Amazon. Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) is a web service that makes it easier to set up, operate, and scale a relational database in the cloud.
 
In this article we demonstrate how to establish connection to AWS RDS Oracle Database Using SQL Client.

Prerequisites
  • Install Oracle SQL Client on your client machine (Windows/Linux)
  • Use can also use Oracle SQL*Developer tool to establish connection


Procedure to Connect to AWS RDS Oracle Database

  • Put tns entry in tnsnames.ora file client machine. 
    • Review the blog article on how to find end point details of AWS RDS instance at http://netsoftmate.blogspot.com/2018/07/how-to-find-hostname-from-aws-console.html

nsmprd =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = nsmprd.cjhtbujgykil.us-east-1.rds.amazonaws.com)(PORT = 1521))
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVER = DEDICATED)
      (SERVICE_NAME = nsmprd)
    )
  )

  • Check connectivity to AWS RDS Oracle instance using tnsping utility
C:Users>tnsping nsmprd

TNS Ping Utility for 64-bit Windows: Version 12.2.0.1.0 – Production on 13-JUN-2018 16:19:34

Copyright (c) 1997, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:
D:oracle12cproduct12.2.0dbhome_1networkadminsqlnet.ora

Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = nsmprd.cjhtbujgykil.us-east-1.rds.amazonaws.com)(PORT = 1521)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = nsmprd)))
TNS-12535: TNS:operation timed out




Follow the steps below to resolve the timed out issue. 

  • Check security group and add rules to VPC security group. While Database instance creation if it is default security group then this instance firewall prevents connections.

To know more about security group please go through following link
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonRDS/latest/UserGuide/Overview.RDSSecurityGroups.html

Add rule to security group

  • Login to console and click on VPC under Networking and content delivery
 



  • Under vpc dashboard navigation pane click on security group 



  • Select the security group for update.


    • Click on inbound rules and edit to add new rules.


  • Click on add another rule.


  • Select from drop down list


  • Choose oracle port in in-bound traffic
     


  • Click on save

Now check the connectivity again using tnsping

C:Users>tnsping nsmprd

TNS Ping Utility for 64-bit Windows: Version 12.2.0.1.0 – Production on 13-JUN-2018 18:37:22

Copyright (c) 1997, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:
D:oracle12cproduct12.2.0dbhome_1networkadminsqlnet.ora


Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = nsmprd.cjhtbujgykil.us-east-1.rds.amazonaws.com)(PORT = 1521)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = nsmprd)))
OK (1500 msec)

We can see that the tnsping is now successful.


  • Now Establish the connection to AWS RDS Oracle Instance

C:Users>sqlplus

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Wed Jun 13 18:37:30 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Enter user-name: nsmsystem@nsmprd
Enter password:
Last Successful login time: Wed Jun 13 2018 14:31:06 +05:30

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 – 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options

SQL> select name,INSTANCE_NAME,OPEN_MODE,HOST_NAME,DATABASE_STATUS,logins,to_char(STARTUP_TIME,’DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS’) “UP TIME”from v$database,v$instance;

NAME      INSTANCE_NAME    OPEN_MODE            HOST_NAME                      DATABASE_STATUS   LOGINS     UP TIME
——— —————- ——————– —————————— —————– ———- ————————-
NSMPRD    NSMPRD           READ WRITE           ip-10-1-2-24                   ACTIVE            ALLOWED    10-JUN-2018 09:27:22




Conclusion

In this article we have learned that how to establish connection to to AWS RDS Oracle Instance using SQL Client and also we have seen how to add rules to the VPC security group.

eBook - Oracle Exadata X8M Patching Recipes | Netsoftmate 
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